Ranchi is the state capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand and is known for its large mineral contents, which forms 18% of the total mineral content of India. This is why it is called the Manchester of the East. It is also called the city of waterfalls for comprising many small and big waterfalls in its premises.
The city is spread over an area of 175.12 square kilometres and has an elevation of about 629 metres from the sea level. It is situated in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur Plateau and also forms the eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau. It also possesses a hilly typography, which is complimented by dense tropical forests.
Ranchi has derived its name from an Oraon village called Archi present in the area. Archi means bamboo grove or stave in Oraon language. Ranchi is the headquarters of Ranchi District and was earlier known as Lohardaga. It was also an important administrative and military base of eastern India, during the British rule.
Later on, the city developed as a crucial trade and commerce centre for sericulture as well as the leading manufacturer of shellac. Ranchi is also referred to as the vegetable bowl due to thick vegetation of green vegetables in its villages.
Ranchi also offers many options for tourists ranging from temples and science centres, to waterfalls. Some prominent temples in the city include the Rajrappa Mandir, Pahari Temple, Durga Bari, Kali Bari, Jagannathpur Temple, Surya temple, Dewri Temple, etc.
Waterfalls in Ranchi include the Hundru Falls, Dasham Falls, Jonha Falls, Hirni and Panchghagh Falls. Other tourist attractions in the place include the Nakshatra Van, Aqua World, Birsa Zoological Park, Deer Park, Dr. Zakhir Hussain Park, Ranchi Science Centre, and others.
The city of Ranchi is also well-connected with other cities of Jharkhand and states of India through road, railways and airways. Ranchi has a state bus terminus near its railway station and it has frequent railway services from states like Mumbai, Delhi, Jabalpur, Patna, Bangalore, Guwahati, Kolkata and many more. Ranchi is also accessible by airways through its official airport, the Birsa Munda Airport.
Ranchi has a subtropical climate and generally experiences a pleasant climate throughout the year. It experiences an annual rainfall of around 1100 mm. The months of September, October and November are the best time to visit the place.